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toàn tiếng Anh
(toàn tiếng Anh)
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Public relation has appeared for a long time on the world. Nowadays, by economic integration, this phrase penetrates Vietnam, become more and more popular and is cared so much although knowledge about this field still limits. In opinion of Scott Cutlip historian who studied public relation, public relation has begun since 1900 in America. Until now, public relation has developed from 111 years but in general, public relation still has been a new field. Therefore, there are many different concepts about this new field. Those different concepts exist together and complement each other. According Ngo ( 2009), almost people has agreed that public relation appeared first time in the United State of America in 1807. Its author is the third president of USA who named Thomas Jefferson. He wrote “The Declaration of Independence” in 1976 which is so famous. This President used this term in the manuscript “ the seventh parliament submission”. He deleted the phrase “though state” and replace it by “public relation”. Himself thinks public relation is like a activities of government agencies aim to create believable air of people with governmentDinh ( 2007) wrote from statement about concept of public relation of World Assembly of Public Relations, Mexico City 1978 that public relation is the art and social science of analyzing trends, predicting their consequences, consulting organization leaders and implementing planned programs of action which serve both the organization’s and the public’s interest. According to this concept, public relation is recognized to be the art and social science which require skill and reality to analyze, predict consequence of problem, consult, implement planned programs of action. All of doings aim to strengthen relationship between members in organization, employee and employer better as well as make relation between organization and public become closer and through it, public will have clear knowledge about organization. Through consulting organization leaders and implementing planned programs of action which serve both the organization’s and the public’s interest, this concept mentioned two sides of public relation. They are public relation which relates to organization, is called internal public relation and public relation which relates public who are every people who do not belong to organization, is called external public relation. The name of two kinds of public relation has expressed clearly who their public is. External public relation tends to attract interest of people. Certainly, their public are every people. How about public of internal public relation? People have known that internal public relation expresses internal relations in an enterprise, organization. However, it seems that internal public of internal public relation is not often identified clearly. As we know, in an organization, leaders also need to consult, implement planed programs to serve the organization’s interest. Doing of Mc Donald’s could be a typical example for serving public interest. In the first days, Ray Knoc founder believed that Mc Donald’s would repay society some thing which company had got from profit and bring any thing to public at local where company businesses. He saw instinctively that if citizen capacity is good, public relation will be good, and when public relation is good, business will be good. 50 years later, the reward dedication for repayment of Mc Donald was written firstly in speech about essential values of McDonald’s: We reciprocate public in place where we business. We are local businessmen. We must be pioneers in perform responsibility with society. Our customer always observes us through our influences for neighbor, human and environment. The example showed that attracting public’s interest by performing community program is an effective way to impulse business right from the start. McDonald’s saw that they are local restaurants and their customers, their public are local people. Therefore it was necessary for them to hold any program which brings community benefits to get acceptance of local people Repaying society some thing which company had got from profit and bring any thing to public at local where company businesses of McDonald’s really is a smart action. It helped McDonald’s get public’s sentiment, faith, positive admittance that created a good relationship with local people. Planning and holding programs which sever community, bring community benefits are a part of public working. In general, public relation has a close relationship with community because public relation’s subject is public including internal public and external public. Al Golin Consultant of McDonald’s through out 50 years, said that McDonald’s does not need join in attracting community to make knowledge of community about them more. Until now, commitments of McDonald in public relation have helped McDonald strengthen its top position in fast service field from that faith with customer. Đinh (2007) said who are internal public? In an organization, internal public are all people who work in that organization. It is from chairman of the board of directors to trainee employee, from formal staff to part time job freelance, employee who signs temporary contract, even volunteer. So with leaders, internal public is their employee. In general, it is unlike external public relation which public are all people who don’t belong to organization, company because its purpose is promotion. Moreover, Dinh ( 2007) also showed out another concept of public relation from concept of The British Institute Public Relation ( IPR) that public relation is the overall activities planned and sustained effort to create and maintain mutual understanding between an organization with all of their audience. In fact, in this concept, audiences are public or people who are relative. Therefore, it seem that here audience can be internal public and external public. That belongs to each case. It is clear that public relation is a process which has high demands in forming a plan and programs, maintaining thinking carefully, continuously. Public relation contributes to establishment and sustentation belief, knowledge between an organization with all of public are people who are relative. Target of this contribution is to narrow gap between the organization with public, make relation between the organization with public better and bring to the organization and public more benefits. In addition, Black (2003) collected many famous public relation concepts of individual, organization studied or worked in PR field such as: the Public Relation Consultancy Association, Glen M Broom, San Diego State University. He hoped people would have full view about public relation. According to the Public Relation Consultancy Association (PRCA), PR is “The method of define messages and communicating them to targeted audiences in order to influence a desired response”. This concept mentioned to define message and communication of Pr. It means PR provides information for communication and hope that communication will publish it on newspaper, broadcast it on TV channels…. Certainly, the information is transmitted or not that depends completely on communication branch, can not impose. However, this concept lacked the management function of PR like Glen M Broom, San Diego State University. In his book, Black did not forget PR concept of Glen M Broom, San Diego State University which showed out establishment and maintenance relations of PR: “Public Relation is the management function that establishes and maintains mutually beneficial relations between an organization and the publics on whom its success or failure depends”. Gregory (2007) also gave recent concepts of public relation of British Institute Public Relation. The first concept, public relation relates mainly to reputation that means relates to consequence of something you have done, something you have stated and other people tell about you. It is not ease to create reputation. Moreover, reputation is unseen, faint, ease to lose. Therefore, it is necessary to establish public’s interest and support. Through this concept, public relation is seen that a tool helps a person, an organization or a business promote reputation, makes their name, their brand is known and believed more by many people. More specifically, duty of public relation are planning, arranging actions, giving statements to make a name, a brand become famous, managing statements of public about person, organization and business to sustain that reputation. The second concept, public relation is a method takes care of reputation, aims to create knowledge, find support as well as impact to idea and behavior of subject is public or people who are relative. Public relation gives necessary information, meaningful actions of person, especially the organization, business to public, create positive impacts for person, the organization, business. All enhance faith, evaluation, recognition of public about service, contribute to raise reputation of the organization, business, get support of public which is an important factor will help business or organization overcome difficulties when crisis occurs. On other word, public relation strengthens relationship between organization with public, reputation and product or service that brings organization, business to higher level about profit and reputation. Nowadays, after build well-known brand by promoting brand programs, many companies have to face with difficulties in sustain reputation. Events of Enfa Grow in 2002 which was solved by T&A Viet Nam PR company, was an famous instance for protect reputation as well as express clearly public relation which takes care of reputation, aims to create knowledge, find support as well as impact to idea and behavior of subject is public or people who are relative. In Vietnam, in 2002, all presses also inform about allowable excess of acid folic content in Enfa Grow milk. Immediately, almost customers react, doubted product, worried about health of children who used Enfa Grow milk. It really was not only a sensitive problem but also a crisis for company. It required clever decision. After that, experts of T&A began to find and discover real reason. It is caused by mistake in printing packing not by content of product. All specimens of Vietnam and foreign country which affirmed that acid folic content was quite safe, were sent to press and announced widely to customer. Certainly, problem solved well, reputation of company was maintained, brand was protected successful after 10 days when company have conclusion about the quality of milk which was ensured by Department of Health. It seems that building a brand is so difficult but maintaining that brand is more difficult. In society now, competition is very fierce. Brand of company can be overthrow by competitor. That is very popular. Moreover, company or organization can not avoid mistake during operation process. All of them influence badly on reputation of company or organization. In fact, the crisis of Enfa Grow was solved successfully by A&T Vietnam PR company. This PR company finished excellently duty which took care of reputation of Enfa Grow, make customer have more knowledge, faith about the product. Enfa Grow would lose reputation, brand if it lacked of intervention of T&A Vietnam PR company with specimens and press release strategies. Scott (2007) announced that public relation has ever been a separate region. PR circle uses many technical terms and obeys principles strictly. If you are not “a part of crowd”, PR will be a work which is very mysterious, even esoteric. It means that PR is very complicated, abstract concept. Only if we turn “a part of crowd”: live, think, understand, feel everything belongs to public do we see it. In general, there are many different public relation concepts. However, they always exist together and supplement each other. Besides, these public relation concepts make me see public relation clearly as well as distinguish difference between public relation and advertising, public relation and public relation and marketing. Thence, we can see importance role of PR more.
Although public relation, advertising and marketing has separated concepts, sometimes people who work in these fields, jumble them. Vu (2006) stressed that firstly, advertising is a form of communication. Advertising is a dialogue between provider and consumer about any definite product. Advertising attracts viewer’s interest, provides information and contain some values which relate to entertainment and aim to make any feedback from consumer; for an instance purchase product. To get high effect, advertising needs building detail circumstance as a dialogue between two people – provider and consumer. Through advertising concept, we find out some differences between public relation and advertising. The first difference, in fact, both PR and advertising relate to communication to provide and transfer information. However, advertising is a form of communication which is paid money to perform while communication programs which relate to PR, don not have to pay money. Due to the essence of communication relates to advertising, aims to introduce a business, a product or service. It attacks directly target customer by emphasizing salient, specific characteristics of product through medium. Typically, advertising slogan of Chinsu: “ Thơm ngon đến giọt cuối cùng”. As a result, through medium, slogan will be in customer’s mind. Unconsciously, customer will remember wonderful characteristics of product that stimulates their purchase. On other word, content of advertising is to persuade or create effects which impact customer, including potential customer and consumer. However, the essence of communication relates to PR, aims to attract public’s interest. In stead of focusing mainly on product, service, holding programs, strategies to introduce them, establishing relationship between provider and consumer as advertising, PR concentrates on sponsor, charity programs… which bring benefits not only for business, individual, organization, but also for community, enhancing relationship with community. For example, a charity program of OMO “ OMO- gừi tặng đồng phục mà bạn không dùng nữa cho bột giặt OMO”. This is charity program is a form of PR. It called students contributes their uniform for poor student. It really is an meaningful action of OMO which bring to the poor student uniforms As a result, these sponsor, charity programs will help individual, enterprise, organization get public’s sentiment, recognition, support. That is reason why reputation which are created by PR, is often unshakeable while which name about product, service are create by advertising, is temporary. Business branch, it has a funny instance that makes difference between public relation and advertisement clearer. If a circus comes a town and you design an advertising board “The circus will come market-day on Sunday”, that will be advertising. If you put that board on back of an elephant, let it come in town that will be promotion. If the elephant passes across mayor’s house, that will be a public advertising strategy. If you get smile of mayor, that will be public relation. The example show out clearly that advertising only give information through the “advertising board that “The circus will come market-day on Sunday” and public relation establish familiar relation through getting “smile of mayor”. The second difference, in advertising, information about product, service is given by producer. Producer pays money for communication in order to the information appear on medium. Information is controlled by them. Therefore, it is not objective. In public relation, information about individual, organization, business is given by third-party that is communication. Certainly, the information is appeared on medium or not that depends on communication and PR can not impose or control information. Therefore, the information is objective. The third difference, advertising strengthens relationship between enterprise with customer to selling more products, provide more services, improve turnover. It does not care about tighten ties inside business as relationship between employee with employee, employee with employer. However, subject of PR including people who belongs or not belong organization. Therefore, PR is recognized like the art and social science of analyzing trends, predicting their consequences, consulting organization leaders and implementing planned programs of action which serve both the organization’s and the public’s interest, strengthening relation between members in organization, business and relation with community. The last difference, image can not lack in advertising, speech aims to supplement image to bring the best effect for advertising. Because the purchase of customer is decided by image they see.
This picture is an example of advertising. It is the advertising sample of OMO. OMO is the product of Unilever. Let’s image that how turnover of Unilever would be or how many OMO pocket would be bought if customer did not know how OMO looks, is attractive or not? Moreover, image of product is a part in competition between producers. Thus, image in advertising contributes to create succeed of advertisement. According to PR concept of the Public Relations Consultancy Association (PRCA), Black( 2003) collected PR is “ the method of defining message and communication them to targeted audiences in order to influence a desired response”. So word has important role. The communication branch agrees to transmit information about an individual, organization, business or not that depends on persuasion of word they use. Obviously, image is only used to illustrate. On other word, in aspect of communication, advertising tends to introduce image, PR tends to use words.
In fact, in business it is not only necessary to distinguish advertising and PR but also important to find out differences between marketing and PR. Nowadays, in businessmen‘s recognition, besides advertising and PR, marketing also is an useful tool in push up business activity. However, in fact, people do not have clear view between PR and marketing. They often think that PR is a part of marketing and marketing is a part of PR. However, it always have difference between marketing and PR. It means we can distinguish between Pr and marketing. Kotler (2000) emphasized that “marketing is a societal process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating, offering, and exchanging products and services of value freely with others”. He also added marketing concept that “as a managerial definition, marketing has been described as “the art of selling products”. Besides, he show out another marketing concept of the American Marketing Association that “ marketing ( management) is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing , promotion, and distribution of ideas, goods and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organization goals.” Marketing also is a societal process which has relation between individuals or groups with others. It is like a bridge between individuals and organization or provider and consumer by products and service through creating, offering and exchanging them with others. It has been described as “the art of selling products”. However, selling only is a part of work of marketing. To selling goods, marketing requires the art. Firstly, the art expresses in caring and looking for demand of potential customer cleverly or defining market, target customer. Kotler (2000) stated that “why it is supremely important to satisfy the needs of customer? Because a company’s sales come from two groups: target customers and repeat customer.” After that, it begins to plan and execute the conception, price promote, distribute ideas, goods and services to satisfy the demand of potential customer, bring individuals, organization profit. Target of marketing is to how to know and see customers well and provide the products, service which is suitable to them. Through the marketing concepts and analysis, we can see clearly some differences of two fields. The first one, although marketing activities care in demand of customer of market more than products, the essence of marketing to push up giving products from producer, distributor to customer through setting up relation between enterprise with potential customer and maintain good relation that only bring benefit to enterprise while PR cares more in help individuals, organization have a good relation with community and brings benefits not only for individuals, organization but also for community. From that, PR can get support, sentiment of public. On other word, marketing aims to increase turnover, profit while PR tries to help business create understanding, recognition about position of business in customer’s mind and their loveable view in order to increase co-operation between public and business. So, values is made by marketing is only temporary while in PR, it is very long. Secondly, all marketing activities does not relates building and sustaining reputation as PR. The third one, everything which marketing performs such as planning programs, is to widen market. Everything which PR performs, is to strengthen and widen relationships with public which can be internal or external public. Business target in marketing is clearer than PR. In summary, marketing and is not similar but they can complement each other such as PR activities creates a good environment marketing. All makes individuals, organizations develop better because profit, reputation and relation with public is so important to survival and succeed of any enterprise.